Christa Mackinnon a Shamanic teacher and psychologist defines Shamanism as follows
‘Shamanism is the oldest known living spiritual system, originating in and derived from indigenous, tribal cultures around the globe. It developed as our ancestors’ way of observing, connecting with and utilising the natural forces around them.
Traditionally, shamans function as the guardians of the psychic and ecological equilibrium of the group and its members, keeping the community and its members in alignment with ‘spirit’ their work generally bridges the worlds, the ‘energetic spirit worlds’ and the material , manifested world.’
Reference ‘ Shamanism and Spirituality in Therapeutic Practice: An Introduction” (Christa Mackinnon 2012).